About Cotton

Cotton plant consists of stem, stem, leaf, flower and seed. According to species and varieties, 60-120 cm, trees can be sorted in 5-6 m. Cotton bodies are vertical, branched and very hairy. Leaves are long stemmed, parted and base heart shaped. The flowers are stalked and are found one by one in the seat of the leaves. The outer bowl leaves are in three parts, the petals are in five free parts. The fruit is a 3-5-eyed capsule which is opened or closed in maturity. This capsule is also called a cocoon. Each eye contains 5-10 seeds covered with blackish-white, oval-shaped, long, dense and white fur. Cotton seeds are called 'milk' along with these feathers or fibers around them.



Archaeological evidence suggests that in India and South America, independently of each other, agriculture of different species of pampas was done 6000 to 7000 years ago and used in clothing. Cotton in the old world came from Harappa civilization in India. He passed from Mesopotamia to Ancient Egypt. The name of the cotton in Arabic is 'al kut', which is in English, cotton, and Spanish as algodón. Uses locally manufacturers in Turkey for cotton 'pambuk', 'Bambuk' in its name, today in northern Syria Located in Manbij cities (Hierapolis Bamby by or Bamby A) is likely to come from the various utterances in other languages. He likes cotton, alluvial and strong soils. Deeply plowed and cultivated in well-fertilized soils. October; in hot regions, February, cold regions in March-April. It is harvested in August and September. The biggest danger for cotton is rain. The rains cause efficiency and quality to drop.

Especially the USA, India, China, Brazil, Turkey, and Central Asian developing countries, mainly in West African countries; cotton is now being produced in many countries of the world. Cotton plants mature within 7-8 months after planting and collection starts on the basis of climatic conditions. The collection is carried out in two ways, manual and machine. Manual collection; is a long-running, high-cost process that causes cotton contamination to be greater. Machine picking is a process that takes place in a short time and at a low cost, with more contamination of the cotton being exposed to less contamination. But the cotton collected with the machine is more likely to contain immature fibers (dead fibers). Cotton is collected by hand in our country in general and has been started to be collected by machine in recent years.



After the collecting process, the process of separating the cocoon and the core of the cotton in the state of the cotton by special machines is called ginning. The main purpose of the ginning process is; making the cotton ready for use in yarn production. There are two different types of ginning in the world, namely Rollergin and Sawgin. In addition, today 'Rotobar ginning' technology is becoming widespread.

Rolling gin; ginning yield is 1-2% longer, and fibers are 1-2 mm longer. But if the ginning plant does not have a massive and fiber cotton cleaner in the system, the amount of trash is higher.

Sawgin gin; the processed cotton is cleaner than trash and foreign matter but the fibers are shorter and the humidity is higher.

Cotton fibers that are ginned and separated from the cocoons and cores inside are pressed into bales.

Nowadays we can collect commercial cotton in 4 main groups according to fiber lengths.

SHORT STAPLE: fibers shorter than 24 mm in length.

MEDIUM STAPLE: Fiber with a fiber length of 24-31 mm.

LONG STAPLE: Fiber with a fiber length of 31-36 mm.

EXTRA LONG STAPLE (ELS): Fibers with a fiber length of 36-60 mm



There are a number of factors that affect the quality and price of Pamuğ. The most important of these is the fiber length, and as this length is increased, the quality of the yarn and fabric produced is also increasing.

Other important parameters are;
These values determine the quality and price of cotton.

Cotton yarn production can be produced in 3 different qualities such as Open-End, Ring Brocade and Ring Penile in different numbers (thicknesses). Briefly summarize the production processes;

Open-End Yarn: Cotton → Harman-Hallaç → Carding machine → First passage machine → Second passage machine → Rotor spinning machine

Ring spinning (cotton): Cotton → Harman-Hallaç → Carding machine → First passage machine → Second passage machine → Roving machine → Ring spinning machine → Bobbin machine

Ring thread (PENYE): Cotton → Harman-Hallaç → Carding machine → First pass ceramics machine → Penetry machine → Penye machine → Second passage machine → Roving machine → Ring spinning machine → Coil machine
It shaped.